Graphics are a type of fine art. This includes works of art developed in various technical ways. In Greek "graphike" means “drawing, painting”.
In the 19th century, graphics were based only on lines or black and white lines. Later, this type of art was further improved. Contour lines, cartoons, stains, as well as the white background of the main painted material were the main artistic means of graphics. According to the design technique, the art of graphics is divided into two parts - drawing and printing graphics. The oldest and most traditional of them is painting. A pencil drawing is drawn mainly on paper and sometimes on fabric. These drawings appear in only one copy. Because some works are rich in color, they are closely related to painting: they are watercolors (watercolors, gouache, tempera) or pastels (crayons). It is possible to create drawings in genres; portraits, landscapes, etc.
The main thing that distinguishes printing, which is another type of graphics, from drawing is that it is possible to get as many copies of printed graphics of the same quality as you want. This includes paintings carved or engraved on metal, wood, stone and magnesium. Depending on the material of the graphic board, different techniques have emerged in print graphics.
- Engravings on metal, i.e. copper, drawn with a needle and then created by pressing are called etching.
- Lithography on stone engraving ("lito" means "stone" in Greek),
- The graphics on the tree are called xylography ("xylo" means "tree" in Greek).
- The relatively later linogravure is processed by digging linoleum.
There are types like According to the field of graphics, book graphics (book design), research graphics (scientific tables, drawings, diagrams, maps), poster graphics, industrial graphics (postcards, invitations, clothing labels, etc.).
The first examples of graphic art in Azerbaijan are found in Gobustan rock paintings, works created by Tabriz miniature school artists and graphic boards of artists. However, the artistic design of classical literary works, manuscripts and religious books shows that graphics have an ancient history in Azerbaijan.
The main types of graphics, such as bench, industrial graphics and posters, developed mainly after the Russian occupation of Azerbaijan in 1920. During this period, the art of graphics, which is distinguished by the efficiency, popularity, political efficiency of ideological and artistic means, became of special importance. Newspaper, magazine and book design are also among the leading genres of Soviet graphics in Azerbaijan. The expansion of the press and publishing in the country has given impetus to the development of cartoons and book graphics. Graphics took an active part in compiling the books published by Azerneshr.
The emergence and development of satirical graphics is associated with the activities of the magazine "Molla Nasreddin". People's Artist, master of caricature Azim Azimzade (1880-1943) played an exceptional role in the development of Soviet graphics in Azerbaijan. He has worked in various genres of graphics, creating colorful paintings, posters, cartoons, stage design, costume sketches and etc.
The most perfect work created by A.Azimzade in the field of book graphics is the illustrations made by M. A. Sabir to "Hophopname".
In the 1930s, artists Gazanfar Khaligov, Ismail Akhundov, Kazim Kazimzade, A.Mammadov and others worked in the field of graphics.They drew illustrations in the books of Azerbaijani and foreign writers and created political posters on various topical issues.
During the Second World War, graphic works, the most popular, operative and effective form of fine arts, gained special importance.
In the 50s, the search for a variety of themes, genres, artistic styles played a decisive role in the development of graphic art in Azerbaijan. A series of works in the types of bench graphics have been created. Maral Rahmanzadeh's series of linocuts and drawings "In Our Caspian" (1953-60), "My Sisters" (1965-82) and autolithography "Azerbaijan is an oil country" (1947) dedicated to labor and everyday life are distinguished by the variety of images and national features. Alakbar Rzaguliyev's "Old Baku", "Carpet weavers", R.Babayev's "Gobustan", "Khinalig" linocut series are characterized by real boards of people's life, maturity of expression.
In the 60s and 70s, Azerbaijan was the beginning of a new stage in machine graphics. We can see this type of graphics in the works of these artists; S.Bahlulzade, N.Akhundov, Y.Huseynov, N.Babayev, R.Huseynov, A.Alasgarov, R. Mehdiyev and others.